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By N. Miguel. Champlain College.

He was try to orthopedic surgery: the traction beam with content to devote his undoubted talents to fur- square rods throughout buy generic stromectol 3mg on line, to obviate the rotation of thering orthopedic surgery in Bristol and was not 279 Who’s Who in Orthopedics a seeker after high places generic 3mg stromectol mastercard. He was not a “com- mittee man” but could be irritating and irrepress- ible in committee 3 mg stromectol otc, usually presenting some aspect of the subject normally ignored yet worthy of further consideration buy discount stromectol 3mg line. His originality and personality brought numer- ous overseas visitors to Bristol and many were privileged to be entertained by K order 3mg stromectol otc. Others might meet the Pridies in the Isles of Scilly, where swimming and boating were the regular holiday activities based on their diminu- tive holiday abode on St. Kenneth Pridie, Lecturer in Orthopedic Surgery at the University of Bristol and Senior William Thomas Gordon PUGH Orthopedic Surgeon at Bristol Royal Hospital and Winford Orthopedic Hospital, died suddenly on 1872–1945 May 4, 1963, at the age of 57 years while reading a paper to the South-West Orthopedic Club William Thomas Gordon Pugh was the Medical meeting at Exeter. He had had to reduce his activ- Superintendent of Queen Mary’s Hospital for ities since the first evidence of cardiac insuffi- Children, Carshalton, from 1909 until his retire- ciency in 1962 and appeared to be doing well until ment in 1937. Originally a physician, he became shortly before his death, when friends were interested, of necessity, in children’s orthopedics, alarmed by news of heart failure, but he insisted and during those 28 years established and directed on giving his paper on anterior fusion of the cer- one of the first two long-stay children’s country vical spine. Both Pugh and his hospital became well known for the manage- ment of skeletal tuberculosis and poliomyelitis. Pugh is best remembered for his “traction by suspension” and for his “Carshalton carriages,” which were the tools he used to diminish the destructive changes so manifest in tuberculous joints treated without traction. William Thomas Pugh was born in 1872 at Hodley, a village in Montgomeryshire. In 1899 he adopted by deed poll the additional Christian name of Gordon. He was educated at Ardwyn School, Aberystwyth, University College, Aberystwyth, and the Middlesex Hospital Medical School, where he was entrance scholar and subsequently Lyell Gold Medallist in prac- tical surgery, Senior Broderip Scholar and Governors’ Prizeman. He qualified in 1894 and graduated the following year with first-class honors in surgery and honors in medicine and obstetrics. After the customary junior appoint- ments at his teaching hospital and in children’s work, he joined the fever service of the Metro- politan Asylums Board in 1897. The following year he gained the MD and in 1907 became 280 Who’s Who in Orthopedics Superintendent of Gore Farm Hospital (now the tion and incision of abscesses, were the mainstays Southern Hospital) at Dartford in Kent. Pugh accepted a trial of heliother- 1905 he had described a simple staining tech- apy (sunshine) and phototherapy (carbon arc nique, using toluidine blue in absolute alcohol lamp), but was not convinced of their efficacy;4 and glacial acetic acid, for the detection of the however, he was more impressed with the use of diphtheria bacillus by demonstration of its Babès- radium in the treatment of tuberculous cervical Ernst bodies or polar granules. In 1924 he introduced into with royal approval, redesignated Queen Mary’s England “traction by suspension” for the treat- Hospital for Children in 1914. Here he remained ment of tuberculosis of the hip at the suggestion for the rest of his professional career. In 1926 Pugh was president of the orthopedic The original apparatus used at Carshalton con- section of the Royal Society of Medicine. He was sisted of a fracture board and mattress on which an early member of the British Orthopedic the child was placed with the feet towards the Association, and in 1935 he was elected to the head of the bed. Skin extension was applied direct Fellowship of the Royal College of Surgeons of to the affected limb, the extension straps were England. Lateral rotation of the limb was Asylums Board in 1907, consisted in the main prevented by a sandal attached to a horizontal of 24 single-storey ward blocks with over 900 wooden bar, and a further wooden bar was placed beds. The buildings were originally intended for under the mattress at knee level to prevent back- a convalescent fever hospital but had never been ward subluxation of this joint. They were situated in 136 acres of tion by suspension” usually sufficed to correct hip parkland on the Surrey Downs. The child was some of the ward blocks in order to provide an allowed relatively free mobility on the bed but operating theater, gymnasium and appliance was prevented from turning over by a chest band. Ini- courtyards on the south side of each ward block tially, and with success, he used two large mole- in which 300 children might live, day and night, skin plasters, which enveloped the thigh. London area on the authority of the boards of Pugh also modified Robert Jones’ abduction guardians and the London County Council. Under frame to give traction by suspension in patients Pugh’s guidance, special units were set up within with advanced tuberculosis of the hip in whom the hospital to care for children with skeletal the desired result was ankylosis in the best posi- tuberculosis, poliomyelitis, cerebral palsy and tion rather than a mobile joint, as was often rheumatic fever. The undulating countryside obtained by “Pugh’s traction” in early cases. In provided ideal conditions for the open-air treat- the early 1920s, the first tip-up hip carriage was ment of skeletal tuberculosis so popular at that produced and this was essentially the fracture time. In addition, enforced rest, adequate diet and board on wheels, elevated to 30 degrees from the conservative surgery, which included the aspira- horizontal. When there was clinical and radi- “There had never yet been devised a jacket or ological evidence of healing, many children were splint... Pugh argued that hyperextension opened side, thus elevating each kidney in turn to up a gap between the vertebral bodies, which improve urinary drainage.

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Three years after his graduation from the Military-Medical Academy stromectol 3 mg low price, he received the title of “privat-docent cheap stromectol 3 mg with mastercard,” and by 1886 was elected to the psychiatry faculty at Kazan’ Uni- versity purchase stromectol 3mg with mastercard. Bechterew was appointed to the faculty of nervous and mental illnesses of the V stromectol 3mg on-line. Bechterew buy 3 mg stromectol visa, the most outstanding of which are: “Leading Routes of the Head and Spinal Cord”; “Basic Studies on the Functions of the Brain”; “Nervous Illnesses in Isolated Observations”; “Objective Psychology”; “The General Diagnosis of Illnesses of the Nervous System”; and “General Foundations of the Reflexology of Man. In this are Edward Hallaran BENNETT reflected the problems and achievements of neu- rology of his time. Having Edward Hallaran Bennett was born in Cork and completed the well-composed study on the was the son of a barrister. After progressing reflexology of man, the field of psychoneurology, through the local schools, he attended Trinity he searched for a model of the human personal- College, Dublin, from which he received his ity in its normal as well as its pathologic mani- medical degree in 1859. Not long before his death, Bechterew the Royal College of Surgeons of Ireland in 1863. It was during this period that his close association with Robert William Smith stimulated his interest in fractures and diseases of bone. After Smith’s death in 1873, Bennett succeeded his old chief as Professor of Surgery at Trinity College. He had a successful surgical practice that included the treatment of many patients with diseases and injuries of the bones. He performed osteotomies of the femur for ricketic deformities using Lister’s antiseptic technique, which he introduced into Dublin. He was known as a great teacher and diagnos- tician and was active in the medical life of his community. Bennett’s first comment on fractures of the base of the first metacarpal was contained in a report to the Dublin Pathological Society in 1882. With his impor- have been attached to fractures: Colles, Smith, tant book, Traité des Membranes en Général et and Bennett. Their lives spanned the nineteenth de Diverses Membranes en Particulier, published century and were curiously related; Smith per- in Paris by Richard, Caille and Ravier in 1800, he formed the autopsy on Colles, and Bennett suc- established the science of histology and tissue ceeded Smith as Professor of Surgery at Trinity pathology in Western Europe. These three surgeons shared a century later was this supplemented by books on common interest in anatomy and both Smith and cellular pathology by Goodsir and Virchow. The Bennett used the vast anatomic resources of the chapter on the synovial membranes is a classic in Dublin medical schools to provide the specimens the fundamentals of orthopedic surgery. As cadavers were long chapter describing the anatomy of the dissected, bones showing evidence of old frac- synovial membrane in each joint. It was Paracelsus had used the term synovia applied from the examination of such collections that to the fluid, and later Clopton Havers described Bennett described the fracture that bears his what he termed synovial glands, i. Bichat rejected Havers’ idea of glands, and recognized their function as fat pads separate References from a specific synovial membrane. Bennett EH (1882) Fractures of the metacarpal belief was still somewhat in vogue as late as the bone. Bennett EH (1885) Injuries of the skeleton: Value of and published in Boston in 1813, Bichat the accumulation of specimens. Bennett EH (1886) On fracture of the metacarpal meaning: “forcing through a membranous bone of the thumb. He was educated in the public schools and attended Columbia University, from which he 1818–1890 received an AB, a master of arts, and a doctor in medicine, the latter in 1927. After an internship Henry Jacob Bigelow was born in Boston, where and a year of study in various clinics in his father, a physician, was the Professor of Europe, he became an orthopedic resident at the Materia Medica at the Harvard Medical School. Hospital for the Ruptured and Crippled, now the He was educated in private schools before enter- Hospital for Special Surgery. As an of his residency, he entered practice in New York undergraduate interested in chemistry, he took the City, where he worked primarily at the Mount lead in planning the laughing parties during which Sinai Hospital. When the Mount Sinai School nitrous oxide or laughing gas was the main of Medicine was established in 1968, Bick was feature. After graduating in 1837, he began the made an emeritus clinical professor of orthopedic study of medicine with his father as his precep- surgery. He was the orthopedic Medical School and lectures by his friend Oliver surgeon for the 3rd General Hospital as it moved Wendell Holmes at Dartmouth.

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