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By Z. Nefarius. Teachers College. 2018.

Some tant for understanding the basic body processes of cellular respi- cell surfaces support such structures as cilia purchase quetiapine 50 mg without prescription, flagella discount 300mg quetiapine with amex, and gelati- ration generic quetiapine 300mg free shipping, protein synthesis best quetiapine 50 mg, mitosis purchase quetiapine 50 mg visa, and meiosis. An understanding nous coats, which assist movement and provide adhesion. Re- of cellular structure gives meaning to the concept of tissue, gardless of the sizes and shapes of cells, they all have structural organ, and system levels of functional body organization. Although cellular structure and function have been Knowledge Check investigated for many years, we still have much to learn about cells. Why is the cell considered the basic structural and func- tional unit of the body? Cytology © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy, Sixth Edition of the Body Companies, 2001 50 Unit 3 Microscopic Structure of the Body (b) (c) (a) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) FIGURE 3. Elements, Molecules, and Compounds CELLULAR CHEMISTRY Elements are the simplest chemical substances. Four elements All tissues and organs are composed of cellular structures that compose over 95% of the body’s mass. The most impor- percentages of body weight are oxygen (O) 65%, carbon (C) tant inorganic substances in the body include water, acids, bases, 18%, hydrogen (H) 10%, and nitrogen (N) 3%. The most important organic substances in the body in- clude proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. A few elements exist separately in the body, but most are chemically bound to others to form molecules. Some molecules Objective 4 Differentiate between inorganic and organic compounds and give examples of each. Others, such as water (H2O), are composed of different Objective 5 Explain the importance of water in maintaining kinds of elements. Thus, the chemical structure of water Objective 6 Differentiate between proteins, carbohydrates, may be referred to as both a molecule and a compound. Organic compounds are those that are composed of car- bon, hydrogen, and oxygen. They include common body sub- To understand cellular structure and function, one must have a stances such as proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. All of compounds generally lack carbon and include common body the processes that occur in the body comply with principles of substances such as water and electrolytes (acids, bases, and salts). Furthermore, many of the dysfunctions of the body The percentages of organic and inorganic compounds found in have a chemical basis. Cytology © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy, Sixth Edition of the Body Companies, 2001 Chapter 3 Cytology 51 TABLE 3. Male sex hormones promote the development of pro- Electrolytes are inorganic compounds that break down into ions teins, especially in skeletal muscle tissue. Female sex hormones when dissolved in water, forming a solution capable of conduct- promote the retention of fats, which are an important food re- ing electricity. An electrolyte is classified according to the ions it source for nursing a child. The three classes of electrolytes than lipids, there is a disparity between the percent of body fluids are acids, bases, and salts, all of which are important for normal between males and females. The functions of ions include the control of water movement through cells and the maintenance of normal acid-base (pH) balance. Ions are also essential for nerve and Water muscle function, and some ions serve as cofactors that are needed for optimal activity of enzymes. Symptoms of electrolyte Water is by far the most abundant compound found within cells imbalances range from muscle cramps and brittle bones to coma and in the extracellular environment. The three kinds of electrolytes are summa- within the body as a homogeneous mixture of two or more com- rized in table 3. In this condition, the water is the sol- vent, or the liquid portion of the solution, and the solutes are substances dissolved in the solution. Water is an almost universal Proteins solvent, meaning that almost all chemical compounds dissolve in it.

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The cortex has three ically to stimuli that demand an immedi- specialized areas that serve three major ate response order quetiapine 300mg on line, such as buy quetiapine 100mg overnight delivery, after tripping quetiapine 50 mg mastercard, functions: enabling the individual to adjust move- ment in order to avoid a fall discount 100mg quetiapine otc. The motor cortex coordinates voluntary Each hemisphere of the cerebrum is movements of the body buy generic quetiapine 300 mg. The frontal lobe is recognition or perception of sensory located in the front of each hemisphere stimuli, such as touch, pain, smell, and contains motor areas that initiate vol- taste, vision, and hearing. The associational cortex is involved in ments, such as those involved in writing. The cerebrum is divided into two halves, The parietal lobe is located in the middle called hemispheres: the right hemisphere of each hemisphere and is primarily the and the left hemisphere. The two hemi- sensory area, integrating and interpreting spheres communicate with each other. Some memory functions specific areas within them are bundles of are also located in the parietal lobe, espe- Normal Structure and Function of the Nervous System 29 Subarachnoid Parietal Lobe Space Pia Mater Wernicke’s Area Arachnoid Frontal Membrane Lobe Broca’s Subdural Area Space Ventricles Epidural Space Temporal Dura Lobe Mater Occipital Brain Lobe Stem Cerebellum Figure 2–2 The Brain. The temporal lobe is located is the major area responsible for receptive under the frontal and parietal lobes and function, or the ability to integrate visual is primarily responsible for the interpreta- and auditory information in order to tion of and distinction between auditory understand a communication received. The occipital lobe is located at the area located in front of the temporal lobe back or posterior portion of each hemi- and in the frontal cortex is called Broca’s sphere. It is the primary area for reception area, which contributes to expressive and interpretation of visual stimuli. The thala- as expressing thoughts in a coordinated mus acts as a relay station that sorts, inter- way so that others may comprehend it. Language function is located in the left Below the thalamus is the hypothalamus, hemisphere of the cerebrum in most indi- which coordinates neural and endocrine viduals, whether they are right- or left- activities. An area located over the temporal internal environment and behaviors that 30 CHAPTER 2 CONDITIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM: PART I are important to survival, such as eating, ried by four major arteries, two carotid drinking, and reproduction. The ver- hypothalamus is the pituitary gland, an tebral arteries join to form the basilar endocrine gland that will be discussed in artery. A band of gray THE BRAIN matter called the hippocampus is involved in learning and long-term memory, help- Traumatic and Atraumatic ing to determine where important and rel- Brain Damage evant aspects of facts will be stored. The brain, like any other tissue, needs Beneath the occipital lobe of the cere- oxygen in order to function. The damage are dependent on: cerebellum also regulates and coordinates fine movements of the extremities, which • the cause of the damage have been initiated by the frontal lobe. Atraumatic (nontraumatic) brain dam- is the primary center of involuntary func- age caused by interference with oxy- tions. Control of vital organ functions gen reaching the brain (such as with such as regulation of heartbeat or respira- choking, carbon monoxide poison- tion occurs in the brain stem. Areas in the ing, or infection) or problems with- brain stem also regulate the diameter of in the brain itself (such as stroke, or blood vessels, consequently helping to structural problems within the brain control blood pressure. Reflex actions, or blood vessels in the brain) such as coughing and swallowing, are con- 2. The brain stem by an outside force that impacts the also contains scattered groups of cells, head hard enough to cause damage called the reticular formation, that are to the brain involved in the initiation and mainte- nance of wakefulness and alertness. Both atraumatic (nontraumatic) and trau- The brain requires both oxygen and matic brain damage are considered acquired nourishment in the form of glucose to brain injuries because they occur after birth function and survive. Oxygen and glucose and are not the result of genetic disorder, are transported to the brain by blood car- birth trauma, or degenerative disease. Conditions Affecting the Brain 31 Atraumatic Brain Damage bral thrombosis. Formation of the thrombus blocks blood flow to an Atraumatic brain damage, as just area of the brain. Because brain tissue explained, refers to conditions in which the needs the oxygen contained in blood brain has sustained damage due to condi- to survive, tissue that cannot obtain tions other than traumatic injury. This tissue death is called an or interference with blood and oxygen infarct. When a part pends on how large an area of the of the brain receives no oxygen (anoxia) brain has been deprived of blood sup- or too little oxygen (hypoxia), the tissue ply from the clot. Again, when the clot brain that then balloons out and can rup- occludes blood flow to a part of the ture), infections or inflammation of the brain, surrounding brain tissue dies. A third cause of stroke is hemorrhage, tions that deprive the brain of oxygen, which occurs because of rupture of a such as strangulation, near drowning, or blood vessel.

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