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By G. Grobock. West Chester University of Pennsylvania.

Engh generic cleocin 150mg visa, MD cheap cleocin 150mg visa, of Arlington discount cleocin 150 mg on-line, Virginia generic cleocin 150 mg on-line, Sara Engh Reger of Shaker Heights purchase cleocin 150mg, Ohio, and Gerard A. Wilhelm Heinrich ERB 1840–1921 Erb’s fame was made possible by hard work over a long period of time, with close attention to detail. His interest in clinical neu- rology developed when he worked for Friedreich. Erb was a prolific writer; on returning from his holidays, he usually produced a new piece of work. In all, he wrote 237 papers and several books, one of peripheral nerve diseases, a text- book of spinal cord diseases, and another on electrotherapy. He founded a journal, and was first President of the Society of German Neurologists Sigmund EPSTEIN in 1907. Sigmund Epstein practiced orthopedics in out the significance and value of pupillary and New York City for a lifetime. He is remembered for his account from Cornell School of Medicine in 1903, and of brachial plexus injuries. He was a cul- In manner he was brusque and intense, and tivated gentleman with a pleasant interest in the offended people by language unusual in academic arts and literature. During the latter part of his life, circles; he was more respected than loved. He died, it is 98 Who’s Who in Orthopedics said, while listening to his favorite symphony, the In 1869 and 1883 he published handbooks on Beethoven Eroica. When I look back on my career as a surgeon I can say with truth that many and many are the times I have deplored that so very few people know how to render the first aid to those who have suddenly met with some injury. This specially applies to the field of battle; of the thousands who have flocked thither in their desire to help, so few have understood how to render aid. Johann Friedrich August Von ESMARCH 1823–1908 Esmarch was a military surgeon who was con- cerned with blood loss and first aid. He was born at Tonning, Schleswig-Holstein, at a time when the province was struggling for freedom from Denmark. The son of a doctor, he studied at Gottingen and Kiel, becoming an assistant to Langenbeck. Peter Gordon Lawrence It was during the insurrection against Denmark ESSEX-LOPRESTI in 1848–1850 that he began surgery; he also organized the resistance movement. In 1857 he 1916–1951 became Professor of Surgery at Kiel, succeeding Stromeyer, the tenotomist, and marrying his Mr. After several res- again between 1866 and 1871 in the wars with ident appointments, he joined the Royal Army Austria and France; in 1871 he became surgeon Medical Corps serving as a surgical specialist in General of the army. As a result of this experi- married again—this time a Princess of Schleswig- ence, he was able to give a comprehensive report Holstein. In the same year he published his on the injuries associated with 20,777 parachute description of the bandage that bears his name. A paper on surgery and to diminish the blood loss during the open wound in trauma followed. His contributions to World War II, he went back to the Birmingham medicine were mainly derived from his battlefield Accident Hospital where he reorganized the post- experiences. He was recognized as 99 Who’s Who in Orthopedics an outstanding young surgeon and was awarded a no exception, being based on the concept, as he Hunterian Professorship. His Hunterian Lecture, put it himself, “that whereas in the normal foot delivered at the Royal College of Surgeons on the medial and lateral columns are about equal, in March 6, 1951, was entitled “The Mechanism, talipes equinovarus the lateral column is longer Reduction Technique, and Results in Fractures and in the calcaneo-valgus foot it is shorter than of Os Calsis. It is suggested that one requirement in eponymically for his cases of radial head fracture the treatment of both deformities is that the length associated with distal radioulnar dislocations, i. Essex-Lopresti was relapsed club foot is a classic; his paper on the a talented and energetic young surgeon, whose calcaneo-valgus foot will complete his contribu- death at the age of 35 cut short a promising career. He went to Brazil on two occasions as a visiting professor under the aegis of the British Council, and inau- gurated a system of training for Brazilians in this country. He went to Canada at the invitation of the Canadian Orthopedic Association.

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This is often because people who come from quantitative backgrounds try to ascribe their methods and processes to qualitative research 150mg cleocin visa. For qualitative data discount cleocin 150 mg without a prescription, the researcher might analyse as the re- search progresses generic cleocin 150 mg overnight delivery, continually refining and reorganising in light of the emerging results cheap 150mg cleocin otc. For quantitative data cleocin 150mg free shipping, the analysis can be left until the end of the data collection process, and if it is a large survey, statistical software is the easiest and most efficient method to use. For this type of analysis time has to be put aside for the data input process which can be long and laborious. However, once this has been done the analysis is quick and efficient, with most software packages producing well presented graphs, pie charts and tables which can be used for the final report. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS To help you with the analysis of qualitative data, it is use- ful to produce an interview summary form or a focus group summary form which you complete as soon as possible after each interview or focus group has taken place. This includes practical details about the time and place, the participants, the duration of the interview or focus group, and details about the content and emerging themes (see Figures 2 and 3). It is useful to complete these forms as 112 / PRACTICAL RESEARCH METHODS soon as possible after the interview and attach them to your transcripts. The forms help to remind you about the contact and are useful when you come to analyse the data. The method you use will depend on your research topic, your personal preferences and the time, equipment and fi- nances available to you. Also, qualitative data analysis is a very personal process, with few rigid rules and procedures. It is for this reason that each type of analysis is best illu- strated through examples (see Examples 8–11 below). Formats for analysis However, to be able to analyse your data you must first of all produce it in a format that can be easily analysed. This might be a transcript from an interview or focus group, a series of written answers on an open-ended questionnaire, or field notes or memos written by the researcher. It is useful to write memos and notes as soon as you begin to collect data as these help to focus your mind and alert you to significant points which may be coming from the data. These memos and notes can be analysed along with your transcripts or questionnaires. You can think of the different types of qualitative data analysis as positioned on a continuum (see Fig. HOW TO ANALYSE YOUR DATA/ 113 Interviewee: ________________ D at e o f I n t erview:________________ P l ac e : ________________________ Time of Interview:________________ Duration of Interview: __________ Where did the interview take place? Did any issues arise which need to be added to the interview schedule for next time? Have I promised to send any information or supply them with the results or a copy of the transcript? Interview summary form 114 / PRACTICAL RESEARCH METHODS D at e : ________________________ Time:_________________________________ Ve n u e : ______________________ D u r at ion: ___________________________ G rou p : ______________________ Diagram of seating plan with participant codes: Where did the focus group take place? Does anything need to be added to the in- terview schedule for the next focus group? Have I promised to send any further informa- tion or the final report to anyone? Qualititative data analysis continuum For those at the highly qualitative end of the continuum, data analysis tends to be an on-going process, taking place throughout the data collection process. The researcher thinks about and reflects upon the emerging themes, adapt- ing and changing the methods if required. For example, a researcher might conduct three interviews using an inter- view schedule she has developed beforehand. However, during the three interviews she finds that the participants are raising issues that she has not thought about pre- viously. So she refines her interview schedule to include these issues for the next few interviews. She has thought about what has been said, analysed the words and refined her schedule accordingly.

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Later Pott was appointed progress in the classics and it was thought that he to other offices and in 1765 was elected Master might become a candidate for holy orders; but he (or Governor) of the Corporation generic 150mg cleocin amex. When Pott began his work as hospital surgeon purchase cleocin 150 mg without prescription, To secure entrance to the medical profession buy cleocin 150 mg mastercard, there was little organized teaching of medical stu- apprenticeship to a regular practitioner was then dents in London cleocin 150 mg with amex. Samuel Sharp of Guy’s gave a necessary and most pupils became attached to an course of evening lectures on anatomy discount 150mg cleocin with visa, surgical apothecary in private practice. Few probationer- operations and bandaging to a Society of Naval ships were available at hospitals, but young Pott Surgeons, which met at Covent Garden; and was fortunate, for in his 16th year he obtained a Edward Nourse gave occasional lectures on sur- 7 years’ apprenticeship to Edward Nourse, assis- gical principles at St. Bartholomew’s Hospital, Pott was the first to introduce regular teaching of 274 Who’s Who in Orthopedics clinical surgery at the bedside. He spoke of cures, Pott sometimes referred to, was a strong instance of the mistakes and experience of other patients with great advantage of preventing the insinuation of air into similar disorders and such instruction drew many the wound of a compound fracture; and probably would students around him, some of whom included not have ended so happily, if the bone had not made its exit, or external opening, at a distance from the frac- John Hunter, Abernethy, Blicke and Earle. He ture; so that, when it was returned into the proper place, also gave lectures in his own house in Watling a sort of valve was formed, which excluded air. Thus Street, to which he had removed from Bow Lane, no bad symptom ensued, but the wound healed, in some and the attractive manner of his delivery was tes- measure, by the first intention. Bartholomew’s Hospital, he wrote a paper— pound fracture up to the mid-Victorian era, Pott “An Account of Tumours which rendered the himself contributed greatly to the preservation of Bones Soft”—which was published in the Philo- his limb and the good healing of his fracture by sophical Transactions. After that contribution he his foresight in safeguarding the leg from the was silent for 12 years, but at the age of 43 an moment of the accident until he reached his home. It was in 1756, while riding in manuscripts of his lectures, but had published what is now known as the Old Kent Road, that an none of them. Sir James Earle, his son-in- imposed by convalescence in preparing for pub- law and biographer,3 relates that: lication and, once started as a writer, continued writing for over 20 years. His first work—“A He was thrown from his horse, and suffered a com- Treatise on Ruptures”—appeared in 1756, fol- pound fracture of the leg, the bone being forced through lowed by several others on diseases of the testi- the integuments. Conscious of the dangers attendant on cle, head injuries, curvature of the spine with fractures of this nature, and thoroughly aware how lower limb palsy, fractures and dislocations. Pott’s Fracture He sent to Westminster, then the nearest place, for two Chairmen to bring their poles; and patiently lay on the One of the important contributions to surgery by cold pavement, it being the middle of January, till they Pott was his monograph entitled “Some few arrived. In this situation he purchased a door, to which General Remarks on Fractures and Dislocations,” he made them nail their poles. He opposed the existing treat- caused himself to be laid on it, and was carried through ment by continuous instrumental traction, which Southwark, over London Bridge, to Watling Street, near St. I cannot forbear fracture could be best reduced and correction remarking, that on such occasions a coach is too fre- maintained by keeping the limb in such a posture quently employed, the jolting motion of which, with the that the muscles were continually relaxed. This unavoidable awkwardness of position, and the diffi- teaching had a far-reaching effect, for Pott’s culty of getting in and out, cause a great and often a method of treating fractures was generally fatal aggravation of the mischief. At a consultation of adopted in England and it prevailed for several surgeons, the case was thought so desperate as to generations. Pott, convinced that the fracture–dislocation of the ankle that now no one could be a proper judge in his own case, bears his name, with an illustration of the result- submitted to their opinion; and the instruments were ing valgoid-displacement of the foot and a actually got ready, when Mr. Nourse, who had been prevented from coming sooner, fortunately entered the drawing of the skeletal injuries responsible for it. After examining the limb, he conceived there His ascription is quite impersonal and he makes was a possibility of preserving it: an attempt to save it no mention of the fracture that he himself was acquiesced in, and succeeded. In consequence there has been some 275 Who’s Who in Orthopedics misapprehension as to the nature of Pott’s acci- vertebrae. His classical description of the ankle frac- origin elsewhere in the body: the disease was ture–dislocation, and his reticence about his own scrophula, and was capable of revealing itself in fracture of the tibia at a higher level, have misled a variety of organs. To give it a modern termi- many to believe that in describing the ankle injury nology, tuberculosis is an infective disease with he was speaking of something within his own inti- local manifestations. This misconception has helped The treatment of spinal disease had been to fasten his name to the fracture–dislocation. This was a new departure Palsy of the Lower Limbs which is frequently in treatment and was the first sign of understand- found to accompany a Curvature of the Spine and ing of the natural process of cure by osseous is supposed to be caused by it. But he was per- in 1779 and was translated into French and Dutch; suaded, partly by the inspiration of Hippocratic the disease that it described became known on the teaching, to form an artificial sinus by applying continent as “La maladie du Pott. He seemed confirmed in his view patients with their symptoms and signs with so by the frequent relief of paralysis in patients sub- sure a touch that we can add nothing to the mitted to this operation. He differentiated between flaccid and the object of draining an abscess, and indeed there spastic paralysis and noted that spasticity was the seldom is any superficial abscess in Pott’s para- invariable rule of spinal cord pressure in spinal plegia. The artificial sinus imposed recumbency, and in consequence of prolonged rest the paraly- The disease of which I mean to speak, is generally sis disappeared. Pott, like many of his successors, called a palsy, as it consists in a total or partial aboli- failed to realize the decisive importance of rest.

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