Join Our Mailing List

What We Do
Preventive Program
Adult Education and Literacy
Youth Program
Legal Services Program
Health Program
Anti-Violence Program
Khalil Gibran International Academy
I Need To Be Heard!

Program Contact Information

Danny Salim
Anti-Violence Program Manager
(718) 250 - 5122


By M. Ashton. Southeastern Louisiana University.

He was subsequently convicted of murder cheap 2mg artane overnight delivery, but his defense was that he chose to terminate Tracy’s life in order to end her continuous and unremit- ting suffering artane 2 mg online. Lati- mer’s supporters arguing that unendurable buy generic artane 2 mg line, unremitting pain justifies ac- tive euthanasia whereas others were concerned about the implications of a potential acquittal for other disabled persons purchase artane 2 mg. They also raised concerns for vulnerable children and adults who cannot effectively express them- selves purchase artane 2 mg visa. Latimer must spend at least 10 years in jail for killing his severely disabled daughter (R. Lati- mer’s character, as, by most accounts, he was a loving father who had the best interests of his daughter in mind. The analysis merely examines his ac- tion and implications from a variety of theoretical ethical perspectives. It is recog- nized that there are variations of deontological and teleological schools of 12. In terms of deontological thought, Kant (1788/ 1977) spoke of the categorical imperative (i. In other words, an individual should act in a way that his or her act could become a universal ethical law for all human be- ings. This implies that if it is ethical to terminate the life of a severely dis- abled child in pain, it follows that all parents of such children should do the same. Moreover, if such a universal law were to exist, it would logically fol- low that persons of disabled children (with severe and unremitting pain) who do not terminate their children’s lives would be acting unethically. As such, it would be very difficult to justify the action to terminate Tracy’s life from a deontological standpoint. From a teleological standpoint, the focus of ethical decision making is on the consequences rather than the means of action. As such, one would have to take into account what results in the least amount of suffering (i. Consequences that would have to be considered include the cost and burden to the family, so- ciety, groups of disabled persons, and, of course, Tracy. With respect to Tracy, one can consider the construct of the injury of continued existence (Engelhardt, 1999). This refers to a situation in which the continuation of life is construed as an “injury. This may or may not be so, but something was certainly lost when Tracy died. Given the many un- knowns involved in this situation, it could be possible to develop an argu- ment in support of either position (i. In other words, the many unknowns create subjectivity in the determination of what would constitute the great- est good for the greatest number. Lati- mer’s action could be justified if he acted as a result of his empathy with his daughter’s pain and his belief that he was acting in her best interest. None- theless, given that many ethics of care theorists would emphasize the importance of nonviolence, one might also have to make the case that the termination of Tracy’s life (involving carbon monoxide inhalation) was non- violent. It might be difficult to reach consensus on the nonviolence issue in this case. If we, as a society, were ever prepared to argue that euthanasia to termi- nate unremitting pain is ethical, we would also have to ask the question as to who should make such decisions for people with severe cognitive impair- ments. We all know that par- 332 HADJISTAVROPOULOS ents and relatives often make mistakes. We also know that the extreme stress that can be associated with illness and disability in the family (e. When it comes to the Latimer case, the truth is that we will never know exactly how much pain Tracy was in and what she would want. In various research projects that we conducted we demonstrated that biases (e. For instance, in one study we showed that trained health professionals observing videos of peo- ple undergoing a painful medical procedure attributed less pain to the pa- tients than did untrained observers (Hadjistavropoulos et al. Any one individual making this decision for Tracy may have been influenced by factors that are not necessarily relevant to her pain experience. Separate from the issue of euthanasia, there is a second ethical concern that relates to the Latimer case. This relates to the obligation of psycholo- gists to help ensure that people with severe cognitive impairments have ac- cess to adequate pain assessment and management.

cheap 2mg artane free shipping

cheap artane 2 mg amex

Sponseller P order artane 2mg without a prescription, Jani M buy artane 2mg without a prescription, Jeffs R buy artane 2 mg with amex, Gearhart J (2001) Anterior innominate cle contractures and co-contractions and this particularly osteotomy in repair of bladder exstrophy generic 2mg artane amex. The patients therefore have to 83-A: 184–93 perform compensatory movements of the spine in order 32 artane 2mg lowest price. Treble NJ, Jensen FO, Bankier A, Rogers JG, Cole WG (1990) De- to rotate the pelvis and thus move the legs forward. Natural malalignment of the lever arms produces an instability in history and susceptibility to premature osteoarthritis. J Bone Joint Surg (Br) 72: 1061–4 stance which is difficult to cope with for the patients with 33. Williams PF, Cole WG (1991) Orthopaedic management in child- reduced motor control. Chapman & Hall, London New York Tokyo Mel- bourne Madras Therapeutic options 34. Wynne-Davies R (1970) Acetabular dysplasia and familial joint lax- The correction of internal rotation is part of the correction ity: two etiological factors in congenital dislocation of the hip. J Bone Joint Surg (Br) 52: of all functionally relevant deformities present at the lower 704–16 extremities. All pathologies must be identified and cor- rected at the simultaneously. Functional deformities in primarily spastic locomotor disorders Deformity Functional benefit Functional drawbacks Treatment Internal rotation/ Stability while standing Knees rub together, feet drag behind, Supracondylar derotation, adductor adduction instability of the leg due to lever arm lengthening, Abductor transposition dysfunction 3 Abduction/ Better hip centering Loss of ability to walk and stand (risk of Possibly iliopsoas transposition external rotation dislocation on the other side) Flexion – Flexion contracture Physical therapy of exaggerated hip internal rotation is best respected this way, too. We prefer today the supracondylar approach, fixed with an AO LCP-plate, as it allows for correction of a knee flexion deformity at the same time, and for immediate weight bearing. A soft tissue approach involves detachment of the hip abductors (gluteus medius and minimus) at the greater trochanter together with a flake of bone and reattachment with screws to the femur under slight tension and with submaximal external rotation (with the hip flexed at ap- prox. This procedure causes the abductors to produce a con- current externally rotating effect. AP x-ray of the pelvis in a male patient with severe spas- this operation is low and there have been no reports of tic tetraparesis and a left abduction contracture, which has resulted in the disastrous consequences that can occur after the more dislocation of the hip on the other side extensive adductor procedures. On the other hand, the ex- tent of correction is limited, and we have performed this operation only in a small number of selected cases. Since a major problem is exaggerated tone and spasticity, ralysis have deformities affecting several joints in the lower the therapeutic strategy must focus on reducing the muscle extremities, e. In auspicious nent, the overactive muscles, particularly the adductors, cases, all deformities are corrected simultaneously [1, 18, require lengthening. In contrast with reports in the lit- 33, 42], otherwise any residual deformities will require erature however [14, 34, 38], these muscles should not be compensation. Even minor rotational corrections (of 10° divided as this may result in insufficiency of this muscle –15° ) have been found to produce a positive effect. Division of the intramuscular A gait analysis preoperatively can help disclose any aponeurosis is sufficient. It is not possible to establish the of the adductors manifests itself in a broad-based gait or movements of the various body segments at the same a broad position in the wheelchair. Unfortunately, the adductors cannot be re- ternal rotation may be present on one side with a normal stored in the event of postoperative insufficiency. Extensive adductor operations involving a tenot- can turn the pelvis posteriorly towards the side with the omy and obturator neurectomy involve the risk of internal rotation, thereby causing the defect to appear less uncontrollable and uncorrectable external rotation pronounced. As a result, the leg without a rotational de- and abduction deformities (see below) with a loss of formity is likewise internally rotated. Instrumented gait analysis provides a reliable base A reversible and less invasive procedure is the injection for these complex corrections. While recurrences are common during the growth In order to preserve abduction during walking, a hip- phase ( Chapter 4. Mancini hip abduction orthosis or a good indication for this minor surgical procedure. SWASH orthosis) can prove successful even without a The injection of botulinum toxin is an alternative to prior operation. However, its use to improve hip center- ▬ External rotational deformities are rare and, in most ing is questionable and probably limited by the inter- cases, iatrogenic. The deformity is usually lead not only to an external rotational deformity but caused by the simultaneous division at operation of also to an abduction contracture. Physical therapy the adductors, the obturator nerve and the iliopsoas usually proves ineffective in resolving this problem.

9 of 10 - Review by M. Ashton
Votes: 134 votes
Total customer reviews: 134


The Arab-American Family Support Center is a 501(c)3 non-profit, non-sectarian organization that provides culturally and linguistically sensitive services to immigrant communities throughout New York City.  © 2017 All Rights Reserved.

AAFSC Brooklyn
150 Court Street, 3rd Flr
Brooklyn, NY 11201
T: 718 - 643 - 8000
F: 718 - 797 - 0410
E: info@aafscny.org
AAFSC Queens
37-10 30th Street, 2nd Fl.

Queens, NY 11101
T: 718 - 937 - 8000
F: 347 - 808 - 8778
AAFSC @ the Family Justice Centers
FJC Bronx (718) 508-1220
FJC Brooklyn (718) 250 - 5035
FJC Manhattan (212) 602-2800
FJC Queens (718) 575 - 4500
FJC Staten Island (718) 697 - 4300