Join Our Mailing List

What We Do
Preventive Program
Adult Education and Literacy
Youth Program
Legal Services Program
Health Program
Anti-Violence Program
Khalil Gibran International Academy
I Need To Be Heard!

Program Contact Information

Danny Salim
Anti-Violence Program Manager
(718) 250 - 5122


2018, Crossroads College, Samuel's review: "Lamictal 200 mg, 100 mg, 50 mg, 25 mg. Order online Lamictal cheap no RX.".

Does psychological testing help to predict the response to acupuncture or massage/relaxation therapy in patients presenting to a general neurology clinic with headache? An open study comparing manual therapy with the use of cold packs in the treatment of posttraumatic headache Cephalalgia 1990; 10: 241–50 82 buy cheap lamictal 50mg on line. Use of complementary and alternative treatments by individuals with fibromyalgia syndrome buy lamictal 100 mg low price. The use of vibrotherapy to prevent suppurative- inflammatory complications in mandibular fractures generic 50 mg lamictal overnight delivery. External stimuli in the form of vibratory massage after heart or lung transplantation discount lamictal 100mg amex. The clinical evaluation of conservative treatment in patients with the thoracic outlet syndrome order 25 mg lamictal otc. The efficacy of psychosocial approaches to behavior disorders in dementia: a systematic literature review. Therapeutic benefit of touch-massage in the overall management of demented elderly. Complementary and alternative therapies for treating multiple sclerosis symptoms: a systematic review Complement Ther Med 2000; 8:97–105 100. Use of alternative health therapies by people with multiple sclerosis: an exploratory study. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1999; 20:354–6 6 Acupuncture and traditional Chinese medicine Yuan-Chi Lin Complementary Therapies in Neurology: An Evidence-Based Approach Edited by Barry S. Oken ISBN 1-84214-200-3 Copyright © 2004 by The Parthenon Publishing Group, London INTRODUCTION The history of traditional Chinese medicine and acupuncture can be traced back 2000 to 3000 years. In Shi Jing (Book of Poems), a collection of verse compiled in the 12th century BC, a number of herbs are mentioned. In Shy Ji (Records of Historian) written 104–91 BC, it is recounted that the technique of pulse taking and acupuncture was developed. Acupuncture is one of the treatment modalities within comprehensive traditional Chinese medicine. Needles of flint, bamboo and bone from the Neolithic period suggest that acupuncture existed long before the discovery of metal. The acupuncture treatment is performed by inserting special hair-thin needles into the skin at specific sites, known as acupuncture points, for desired therapeutic and preventive purposes. Acupuncture can be effective in the treatment of mental as well as physical illnesses. Moxibustion, the burning of moxa (Artemisia vulgaris) over the acupuncture points, can also be used for the treatment of various illnesses. There were other situations, such as addiction, stroke rehabilitation, headache, menstrual cramps, tennis elbow, fibromyalgia, myofascial pain, osteoarthritis, low back pain, carpal tunnel syndrome and asthma, in which acupuncture may be useful as an adjunct or an acceptable alternative treatment, or one that might be included in a comprehensive management program. This chapter provides a practical and theoretical Acupuncture and traditional Chinese medicine 135 understanding of traditional Chinese medicine and acupuncture, emphasizing its efficacy in various neurological diseases. The training and licensing requirements for acupuncturists and potential risks of acupuncture are also addressed. TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE The use of traditional Chinese medicine and acupuncture can be traced back to Neolithic times. Archeological vestiges exist which testify to the antiquity of its practice, although the practice was first passed on as an oral tradition. This work was composed as a dialogue between the Yellow Emperor and his minister, Chi-Po. There are two depictions of sessions within the text, Su Wen (Common Questions) and Ling Shu (Direction of Soul/Spirit). Within traditional Chinese medicine, sharp distinctions are not made between the physical, psychological and synthetic. This contrasts with Western biomedical science, which tends to be reductionistic in its attempts to trace a linear cause-and-effect chain of events to a single identifiable etiology. In the traditional Chinese medicine framework, illness is understood as an overall pattern of a multiple of physical, psychological and environmental factors. The theoretical basis of traditional Chinese medicine stems from a system of metaphysics that focuses on the balance between two opposing forces: Yin and Yang. They can transform into each other, and are natural phenomena that also exist within the body.

purchase lamictal 100mg without a prescription

Craig DRUG LIST GENERIC NAME PAGE GENERIC NAME PAGE Carbamazepine 378 Mephenytoin 378 Clobazam 381 Mephobarbital 381 Clonazepam 380 Metharbital 381 Clorazepate 381 Nitrazepam 381 Diazepam 383 Oxcarbazepine 379 Ethosuximide 381 Phenobarbital 381 Ethotoin 378 Phenytoin 377 Felbamate 382 Primidone 381 Fosphenytoin 383 Tiagabine 381 Gabapentin 382 Topiramate 379 Levetiracetam 382 Valproic acid (Sodium valproate) 379 Lamotrigine 379 Vigabatrin 381 Lorazepam 380 Zonisamide 379 Epilepsy (or epilepsies cheap lamictal 25 mg on line, since markedly different Head trauma discount lamictal 50mg without prescription, meningitis discount lamictal 25mg otc, childhood fevers generic lamictal 25mg free shipping, brain clinical entities exist) is a common neurological abnor- tumors 50mg lamictal with visa, and degenerative diseases of the cerebral mality affecting about 1% of the human population. Seizures often occur in hyperthermia (febrile cause of the seizure disorder is not known (idiopathic seizures are very common in infants); sometimes in epilepsy), although trauma during birth is suspected of eclampsia, uremia, hypoglycemia, or pyridoxine defi- being one cause. Partial (focal, local) seizures Local contralateral discharge Seizures may be limited to a single limb or muscle group; A. Simple partial seizures may show sequential involvement of body parts (epileptic march); consciousness usually preserved; may be so- matosensory (hallucinations, tingling, gustatory sensa- tions); may have autonomic symptoms or signs such as epigastric sensations, sweating, papillary dilation B. Complex partial seizures Unilateral or bilateral asyn- Impairment of consciousness, may have automatisms, flash- (psychomotor epilepsy, chronous focus, most often in back (déjà vu, terror); autonomic activity such as pupil di- temporal lobe epilepsy) temporal region lation, flushing, piloerection C. Partial seizures evolving May generalize to tonic, clonic, or tonic-clonic to secondary generalized seizures II. Generalized seizures 3-Hz polyspike and wave Brief loss of consciousness with or without motor involve- A. Absence seizures ment; occurs in childhood with a tendency to disappear (petit mal epilepsy) following adolescence B. Tonic-clonic seizures Fast activity (10 Hz or more) Loss of consciousness; sudden sharp tonic contractions of (grand mal epilepsy) increasing in amplitude dur- muscles, falling to ground, followed by clonic convulsive ing tonic phase; interrupted movements; often postictal depression and incontinence by slow waves during clonic phase F. Atonic seizures (astatic) Polyspikes and wave Sudden diminution in muscle tone affecting isolated muscle groups or loss of all muscle tone; may have extremely brief loss of consciousness Modified from the International Classification of Epileptic Seizures. The tinue anticonvulsant medication regardless of the need prognosis depends in part upon the type of seizure disor- for other drugs. Since it may be dangerous to withdraw der, but overall, only about 40 to 60% of patients become anticonvulsant medication from a pregnant woman with totally seizure free with available drugs. These agents are epilepsy, the teratogenic potential of anticonvulsant chemically and pharmacologically diverse, having in drugs also is a consideration in the treatment of women common only their ability to inhibit seizure activity with- of childbearing age. The choice of drug or drugs used depends on seizure classification, since a particular The Development of Effective Drug drug may be more or less specific for a particular type of Treatment for Convulsive Disorders seizure; patients having a mixture of seizure types pres- ent particular therapeutic difficulties. It is not always The first effective treatment of seizure disorders was the clear when to treat with one drug (monotherapy) or serendipitous finding in 1857 that potassium bromide more than one drug (polytherapy) in a particular patient. Even though Approximately 25% of patients given a single anticon- side effects were troublesome, the bromides were vulsive agent do not achieve successful seizure control widely used for many years. While other barbiturates were synthesized and used, Convulsive disorders often begin in childhood, and none were shown to be superior to phenobarbital, and drug therapy must be continued for decades; therefore, the latter compound is still used. A chemically related 376 IV DRUGS AFFECTING THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM nonbarbiturate, phenytoin, was discovered about 20 of calcium channels. Several anticonvulsant drugs act to become hyperexcitable and begin firing bursts of action facilitate the actions of GABA. These may typically seen during epileptic discharges may be due in be the result of abnormalities in neuronal membrane part to the action of glutamate acting on N-methyl-D- stability or in the connections among neurons. It is aspartate (NMDA) receptor channels to produce depo- known that the epileptic bursts consist of sodium- larization. It is likely that a major part of the anticon- dependent action potentials and a calcium-dependent vulsant activity of felbamate involves blockade of the depolarizing potential. Modulation of neuronal CLINICALLY USEFUL DRUGS sodium channels decreases cellular excitability and the propagation of nerve impulses. Inhibition of sodium Anticonvulsant drugs may be divided into four classes, channels appears to be a major component of the based on their most likely mechanism of action. Although it may be premature to assign a mechanism of Much interest is also centered on the role of calcium action to some of these compounds, the proposed channels in neuronal activity, since the depolarization classes are a convenient way to group the drugs. For a proposed mechanism of action to be considered relevant for a given drug, the effect must occur at concentrations sim- Extracellular ilar to those that are likely to be achieved therapeuti- cally. Cell membrane Sodium Channel Blocking Agents Drugs sharing this mechanism include phenytoin (Di- lantin), carbamazepine (Tegretol), oxcarbazepine (Tri- A Intracellular leptal), topiramate (Topamax), valproic acid (Depakene), Na zonisamide (Zonegran), and lamotrigine (Lamictal). All of these agents have the capacity to block sustained high-frequency repetitive firing (SRF) of action poten- tials. This is accomplished by reducing the amplitude of sodium-dependent action potentials through an en- hancement of steady-state inactivation. The sodium channel exists in three main conformations: a resting (R) or activatable state, an open (0) or conducting state, and an inactive (I) or nonactivatable state. Because it takes time for the bound drug to dis- sociate from the inactive channel, there is time depen- Na dence to the block.

order 50mg lamictal

Your doctor will want to know if you or anyone in your family has had any of these conditions: rheumatoid arthritis order lamictal 200mg with visa, psoriasis order 25mg lamictal with amex, past injury or fracture of the involved area buy generic lamictal 25 mg on-line, recent chest trauma or surgery generic lamictal 200 mg free shipping, angina generic 100mg lamictal free shipping, or myocardial infarction. Your doctor will do a physical examination including the fol- lowing: checking the affected area for swelling, tenderness, discol- oration, dislocation or deformity; checking the strength of fingers, the grip, the wrist, and the upper arm; checking the pinprick sensa- tion in all fingers; and a series of exercises to try to reproduce the pain you describe. CAUSE WHAT IS IT YPICAL SYMPTOMS Osteoarthritis Joint problems that de- Swelling, pain, and stiff- velop with advancing age ness in multiple joints; in the hands, tends to affect the third joints Rheumatoid Autoimmune disease Stiffness in multiple joints, arthritis causing joint problems swelling, pain; in the hands, tends to affect the first and second joints; can also affect the wrists and elbows Psoriatic Severe joint problems Rash, fingernail destruc- arthritis (See accompanied by rash tion, resembles rheumatoid chapter on arthritis (see above) Skin Problems. If you or someone you know has experienced any of the following symptoms of head injury, seek help immediately: • Unconsciousness lasting longer than five minutes after the injury • Trouble remembering events immediately before the injury occurred • History of nervous system abnormalities • Bone abnormalities in the skull • Abnormal breathing after the injury IMPORTANT: If you or someone you are with experiences a head injury and also has severe neck pain, do not move the head, because the injury may include neck fracture. Your Doctor Visit What your doctor will ask you about: stupor, neck pain, motor or sensory changes, discharge from ear or nose, vomiting, seizure, loss of urine or bowel control, tongue biting, pain in other parts of the body, cuts. Your doctor will want to know if you or anyone in your family has had any of these conditions: alcoholism, cardiovascular dis- ease, epilepsy. Your doctor will want to know if you know what happened prior to your injury, if you were ever unconscious, and if so, for how long. Your doctor may also want to speak with someone who knows you, to determine if you seem different from your usual self. Your doctor will do a physical examination including the fol- lowing: blood pressure, pulse, breathing rate, checking head and neck for discoloration or cuts, touching the head and neck to look for tenderness or bony abnormalities, thorough ear and eye exams, checking the nose for clear discharge, thorough examination of your reflexes and movement. Your doctor will likely also ask you questions to check your men- tal status, such as whether you know where you are and what time it is. Headache What it feels like: throbbing, sharp pain or pressure in the head or neck, sometimes accompanied by nausea, neck aches, and muscle pain. What can make it worse: head injury, anxiety, alcohol, certain foods, pressure over points in the face, placing the head between the legs. The brain itself cannot feel pain—the pain comes from stimulation of blood vessels, muscles, or nerves in the head and neck. Your Doctor Visit What your doctor will ask you about: history of unconsciousness, change in memory, motor or sensory change, nausea, vomiting, stiff neck, fever, ear pain, eye pain, change in vision, nasal discharge or stuffy nose, muscle aches or pains, anxiety, depression, seeing flash- ing lights or having “funny” feelings before the headache, results of previous skull X-rays, CT, or MRI. Your doctor will want to know if you or anyone in your family has had any of these conditions: nervous system disease, previous skull fracture, migraine headaches, cluster headaches, emotional problems, sinus disease. Your doctor will want to know if your headache wakes you up from sleep, if it occurs more often at night, if it began suddenly, or if it recurs. Your doctor will do a physical examination including the fol- lowing: blood pressure, temperature, thorough eye exam, thorough ear exam, checking sinuses for tenderness, looking for discharge from the nose, checking the throat, examining the neck for stiffness, thorough examination of your reflexes and movement, a series of exercises to reproduce the pain. COMMON CAUSES OF HEADACHE CAUSE WHAT IS IT YPICAL SYMPTOMS Muscle tension Tightness in the muscles Constant band-like pres- of the shoulders, scalp, sure that lasts days to neck, and jaw weeks, pain often centers at the back of the head and worsens at the end of the day, triggered or worsened by anxiety Classic Severe form of headache Throbbing pain that can migraine last several days, often experience typical “funny” feelings before pain kicks in, headache often centers in the front of the head, often preceded by nausea and vomiting, family histo- ry of migraine, may be caused by alcohol or stress Common Severe form of headache Resembles classic migraine migraine (see above), often appears without typical “funny” feeling beforehand Cluster Recurring form of Brief pain centered in the headache headache front of the head, occurs often at night, tearing, nasal stuffiness, sometimes go for months with no symptoms HEADACHE 111 WHAT CAN CAUSE HEADACHES, AND WHAT IS TYPICAL FOR EACH CAUSE? Anxiety can produce symptoms of heart pounding in people with- out heart conditions. If you also lose consciousness, see the chapter on Loss of Consciousness for more information. If the heart pound- ing comes with chest pain, see the chapter on Chest Pain for more information. Your Doctor Visit What your doctor will ask you about: anxiety, depression, giddi- ness, weakness, tingling in hands or around mouth, fever, chills, chest pain, trouble breathing, loss of consciousness, pulse rate dur- ing palpitations, results of previous heart monitoring, the rhythm of heartbeats during palpitations. Your doctor will want to know if you or anyone in your family has had any of these conditions: heart disease, diabetes, high blood pres- sure, thyroid disease, blood disease, emotional problems, alcoholism. Your doctor will want to know how long each episode of heart palpitations lasts, if each episode begins and ends gradually or abruptly, and if you have experienced palpitations before. Your doctor will ask if you smoke cigarettes or drink alcohol, and how much caffeine you drink. CAUSE WHAT IS IT YPICAL SYMPTOMS Anxiety or Chronic feelings of a low Numbness in both hands, depression (See mood or anxiety faintness, pins and needles chapter on around lips, trouble breath- Depression, ing, occurs in people con- Suicidal cerned about their heart Thoughts, or health, can be a “panic Anxiety. If you are experiencing chest pain other than heartburn, refer to the chapter on Chest Pain for more information. If your pain is centered more in your abdomen, see the chapter on Abdominal Pain for more information. Your Doctor Visit What your doctor will ask you about: anxiety, depression, weight loss, weakness, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting blood, tarry stools, results of any recent tests of the insides of your stomach, any suc- cesses with previous treatments or diets.

buy 100 mg lamictal overnight delivery

Individuals in whom Kapha predominates have a solid discount 25mg lamictal otc, heavier build 200 mg lamictal overnight delivery, act more slowly and methodically trusted 100 mg lamictal, are averse to damp weather generic 25 mg lamictal fast delivery, have a slow 37 digestion and heavy generic 100 mg lamictal with visa, long sleep. As will be noted below under the discussion of prevention and treatment, dietary and other prescriptions are to some extent based on dosha predominance and imbalance. A more comprehensive understanding of the effects of the doshas in the physiology requires an appreciation of sub-doshas of Vata, Pitta and Kapha. These are five named Ayurvedic medicine 179 subdivisions for each of the doshas, related to locations in the body where each dosha 37,38 exerts its influence. As will be discussed later, the first sub-dosha of Vata, prana vata, is responsible for the Vata influence on CNS function. PRAGYA APARADH AND THE BASIS OF ILLNESS The normal functioning of the physiology on the basis of balance of the doshas, the production of ojas, balanced dhatus and agnis and clear shrotas is, from a Vedic perspective, the normal state of the physiology. This is the state of human physiology that is able to reflect its infinite, unbounded source, the unified field underlying physiology, which we have previously identified as Consciousness. Less than perfect functioning of physiology is considered a result of less than perfect expression of Consciousness into matter or, more specifically, human anatomy and physiology. It is the intellect that loses sight of the unified field and identifies with the ever-changing relative values of physiology instead. These derangements involve the doshas, shrotas, agnis and dhatus, the lack of ojas—the finest product of Table 1 Characteristics of individuals in whom one of the doshas predominates Vata Pitta Kapha Light, thin build Moderate build Solid, heavier build Acts quickly Acts with medium speed Slow, methodical Averse to cold weather Averse to hot weather Averse to damp weather Irregular digestive power, Strong digestion, sharp appetite Slow digestion, mild irregular appetite Medium time to learn, medium appetite Quick to learn memory Slow to learn Quick to forget Tends to anger Slow to forget Tendency to worry Regular elimination Tranquil, steady Tendency to constipation Sometimes loose or frequent Regular elimination Vivacious, always moving stools Heavy, long sleep Stamina, Light, interrupted sleep, about 6h Sound sleep, medium length strength Tends to fatigue, less physical Enterprising, sharp Dark, full hair stamina Thin, fair hair Oily, smooth skin Curly hair more likely Reddish complexion, moles and Prominent joints, tendons and freckles veins Early graying or balding Dry skin Complementary therapies in neurology 180 Reproduced with permission from Elsevier from Sharma HM, Clark C. If pragya aparadh, the mistake of the intellect, allows the physiology to lose sight of the unified field at its basis, and thus entertain disease, then it is logical that a technique that allows for the direct experience of that unified field on the level of consciousness, the TM technique, should stand as the single most important therapeutic technique in Vedic medicine. Whether from an ayurvedic perspective an illness is due to weakened or excessive Vata, Pitta or Kapha, or a derangement of agni, dhatus or shrotas, experience of the unified field should enhance the re-establishment of homeostasis. The mechanism of the therapeutic effect of the TM technique is intriguing from a neurological perspective. As described above, this process is associated with a different mode of cortical functioning, with a distinct EEG signature. It is on the basis of a change in cerebral cortical activity produced by a mental technique that the other physiological effects arise. This is reasonable, given the ability of cerebral cortical activity to govern the remainder of CNS function, including autonomic and neuroendocrine function via the hypothalamus. As discussed above, the Vata, Pitta and Kapha doshas govern aspects of normal physiological functioning. Their derangement can adversely affect those same corresponding aspects of physiological functioning. Vata, associated with motion and transport, can through its derangement be associated with diseases affecting transport. This may manifest as disorders of the respiratory or gastrointestinal systems for example, as motility is central to both. In a similar manner, diseases of the nervous system are often the result of Vata derangement, as movement and transport are 37 central functions of nervous system activity. Pitta in its role governing transformation, and Kapha, in its role governing structure and cohesion, may also be associated with nervous system dysfunction. However, Vata derangement is the most common dosha imbalance in patients with neurological illness. Diagnosis in ayurveda much as in allopathic medicine involves interviewing the patient (prashanam), visually inspecting the patient (darshanam) and physically examining the patient (sparshanam). The diagnosis of dosha imbalances may be based on the elicitation of symptoms referable to the entire physiology, although the primary manifestation of disease may be in the nervous system. Symptoms of Vata imbalance include anxiety, constipation, fitful sleep or insomnia, cold intolerance and dry skin. Pitta imbalance may manifest as peptic ulcer disease, inflammatory skin conditions, excessive body heat, and anger and irritability. Kapha imbalance may present with excessive sleep, 37 mental dullness, sinus congestion or asthma and obesity. Ayurvedic medicine 181 In addition to the elicitation of symptoms by history, signs of dosha imbalance may be evident on visual inspection, as in the evidence of dry skin or motor restlessness indicative of a Vata imbalance.

8 of 10 - Review by D. Tukash
Votes: 93 votes
Total customer reviews: 93


The Arab-American Family Support Center is a 501(c)3 non-profit, non-sectarian organization that provides culturally and linguistically sensitive services to immigrant communities throughout New York City.  © 2017 All Rights Reserved.

AAFSC Brooklyn
150 Court Street, 3rd Flr
Brooklyn, NY 11201
T: 718 - 643 - 8000
F: 718 - 797 - 0410
E: info@aafscny.org
AAFSC Queens
37-10 30th Street, 2nd Fl.

Queens, NY 11101
T: 718 - 937 - 8000
F: 347 - 808 - 8778
AAFSC @ the Family Justice Centers
FJC Bronx (718) 508-1220
FJC Brooklyn (718) 250 - 5035
FJC Manhattan (212) 602-2800
FJC Queens (718) 575 - 4500
FJC Staten Island (718) 697 - 4300